Models of Particles and Moving Media
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During the filling of the tubes with the test fluid, countless air bubbles are trapped. In order to remove them, the fall tubes were filled with the test fluids 24 hours prior to beginning the drop tests. To avoid occasional temperature oscillations in the fluid during the experiments, the experimental apparatus was set in a cooled compartment in which the temperature could be controlled. In order to allow thermal equilibrium to be reached, the cooling system was turned on 24 hours prior to the commencement of the tests.
In the present work, Newtonian fluids - distilled water and aqueous glycerine solutions - and non-Newtonian fluids - aqueous carboximethil-cellulose - were used as the test fluids. The densities of the solutions utilized were measured by means of pycnometers. In this work 30 spherical particles of several sizes ranging from 6. With the purpose of obtaining experimental data closer to the situation where b tends to zero, a fifth glass tube with a length of mm and an inside diameter of mm was added to the experimental apparatus. The fall times of particles in this tube were obtained manually, because the light bundle that commands the stopwatches is not intense enough to cross the liquid medium for the distance of the tube diameter.
For the manually performed measures it was established that each particle would enter the reading area, set at mm for this work, after traveling the inlet length L1. Four operators equipped with digital stopwatches brand: Mondaine , reading up to 10 -2 s, registered the fall times. To determine particle flow in non-Newtonian fluids, it is usual to extend the definition of the classic Reynolds number by substituting dynamic viscosity for effective viscosity:.
The characteristic shear rate can be determined by the experimental measure of the terminal velocity of the particle with the aid of a correlation of the Reynolds number as a function of the drag coefficient. In this approach, Laruccia and Almeida proposed expressions to estimate the shear rate that the fluid experiences owing to the fall of the particle.
Based on a set of experimental data measurements of velocity, the typical result of the variation in terminal velocity with particle diameter may be represented. Figure 2 illustrates the terminal velocities of eleven steel particles in free fall through a glycerine solution in a tube with an inside diameter equal to In analyzing Figure 2 , one can notice two regions of wall effects.
Another way of elucidating the same effects exerted by the wall on velocity is to consider a particle moving through an aqueous glycerine medium inside five fall tubes with different inside diameters, as shown in Figure 3. The same tendency as that observed previously is verified in this figure. In order to analyze the methods adopted in the literature to estimate terminal velocity in an unbounded medium, we compared two techniques linear and non-linear extrapolation with the expression proposed by Haider and Levenspiel , described by Equation 5. Table 1 presents the results obtained for a glycerine solution.
For the case of non-Newtonian fluids, the results of terminal velocities obtained for spheres in a CMC solution displayed a deviation of Haider non-linear vs. Forgot password?
- The movement of particles in solids, liquids, and gases..
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The movement of particles in solids, liquids, and gases. Rate It! Belongs to: Properties of Matter. By allowing the students to be introduced to the historical backgrounds and having each group to create a three dimensional figure and a poster, it allows the learning process to be student-driven, inductive and interactive. Students investigate properties of gases, represent predictions graphically, test predictions using the manipulative, and then extend the knowledge into real investigations i.
Background information for teachers is provided. Throughout the lab, students will be modeling the process of adding and removing energy from matter which leads to phase changes. Students will use their knowledge of states of matter to introduce the relative amount of kinetic energy in each state of matter, how changes in the kinetic energy can causes phase changes in matter, and what those phase changes are called. Everyone knows that water has a solid phase, which is ice, a liquid phase, which is water, and a gaseous stage, which is water vapor.
At this level, students are expected to understand the motion of particles at the molecular level. A thorough understanding of particle motion is necessary in preparation for chemistry in the eight grade standards. This activity is fun at Halloween because families may use dry ice in Halloween displays.
Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other. Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
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Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules. Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules. From the site: Pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more open the box, change the molecular weight of the molecule. Ideas to investigate: Describe characteristics of three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas. Predict how varying the temperature or pressure changes the behavior of particles.
Compare particles in the three different phases. Explain freezing and melting with molecular level detail.
Phys. Rev. Lett. , () - Motion of Heavy Particles on a Submerged Chladni Plate
Recognize that different substances have different properties, including melting, freezing and boiling temperatures. Explain how using combinations of solutes changes solution characteristics or not. Use observations to explain ways concentration of a solute can change. Describe ways the formula, macroscopic observations, or microscopic representations of a compound indicates if the bonding is ionic or covalent. Students explore the attractions and motion of atoms and molecules as they experiment with and observe the heating and cooling of a solid, liquid, and gas.
Students look in detail at the water molecule to explain the state changes of water. Students are molecules, bouncing off the walls of a container roped in area to represent pressure.
The Diesel Soot Particles Fractal Growth Model and Its Agglomeration Control
The students change their speed, to demonstrate changing temperature, and show that pressure increases as temperature increases. Students can be added to the simulation to show density changes.
Students will be able to describe the motion of the particles in solids, liquids, and gases. Content statements : - The particles of a gas move quickly and are able to spread apart from one another. Subject s : Science. Intended Audience: Educators. Instructional Time: 1 Hour s. By submerging the resonating plate inside a fluidic medium, the acoustic radiation force and the lateral effective weight become dominant at the sub-mm scale.
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Those forces, averaged over a vibration cycle, move the particles towards the antinodes and generate sophisticated patterns. We create a statistical model that relates the complex motion of particles to their locations and plate vibration frequencies in a wide spectrum of both resonant and nonresonant frequencies. Additionally, we employ our model to control the motion of single particles and a swarm of particles on the submerged plate. Our device can move particles with sufficient power at an exceptionally wide frequency range, potentially opening a path to new particle manipulation techniques at sub-mm scale in fluidic media.
Particles that trace the vibration pattern of a surface behave differently underwater—an effect that could potentially allow manipulation of microscopic particles for biomedical purposes. Library subscriptions will be modified accordingly. This arrangement will initially last for two years, up to the end of A computer generates a signal that excites the submerged plate and moves the particles on the plate towards the antinodes.
The white dashed lines represent the nodal lines. The acoustic radiation force F r points towards the antinodes, and the drag force F d acts in a direction that is opposite to the motion of the particle during the whole vibration cycle. It follows that the adjacent resonant patterns, which are underlaid in the experimental figure, affect the path of the vortexlike motion.
Second column shows the divergence of the displacement field underlaid below the modeled displacement vector field, whereby the red and blue regions represent the nodal and antinodal regions of vibration, respectively. Third column shows the signed magnitude of curl, overlaid on the corresponding displacement field.
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