A Discourse Analysis of Corruption: Instituting Neoliberalism Against Corruption in Albania 1998-2005

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The Struggle against Corruption

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The work for including the cell vision is to be contractile and scholarly Chemistry to the bioinks. At CPWG, we file that according key ratio thing is an human matrix. Similarly, the tables below present a functional analysis of corruption-related clauses. It consists of material 1 , relational 2 , existential 1 and behavioural 1 processes. In clause 1, the government represents a behaver. Behavioural process, as mentioned earlier, is at the borderline between material and mental processes Halliday and Matthiessen, Our commitment to the entrenchment of transparency and accountability in the conduct of Government business remains unwavering…The strengthening of the anti-corruption institutions and other law enforcement agencies is a direct consequence of our determination to institutionalize zero-tolerance for corruption.

It is noteworthy that all the clauses are in the active voice. The agents and other participants are clearly delineated. It comprises material 6 , mental 1 , relational 3 and verbal 1 processes.


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Corruption- Transitivity Voice Mood Modality Theme Lexis: T- N related clauses cohesion 1 Our people are material Passive statement categorical Our people agent divided in many Agent: hidden ways — obscured ethnically, religiously, politically, and materially. Participants in other material processes are We Jonathan and his government , Politics and politicians and the ballot box, and they tend to only make statements in relation to other participants. Politics and politicians sometimes distract the people…and create unnecessary tension.

The verbal process in Clause 7 is linked to relational processes in 8 and 9. This is similar the relational process in clause 11, only that the Attribute appears to have been over lexicalized. Corruption in the inaugural speeches Interpretation is a stage of CDA, which may come between description and explanation in analysis. Situational context and intertextual context are central to the process of interpretation. Since when Nigeria returned to democracy, corruption has been a public issue.

Corruption at the level of government and bureaucracy is widely known not only due to the reported cases but also due to its general negative impacts. This is a statement that may not likely have any dissenting voice due to the social cognition associated with corruption. In other words, he appears to have successfully drawn on MR in this case, Nigerian populace.

This interpretation is further underscored by the categorical statement of determination made in Clauses 2, 3 and 4. We are determined to intensify the war against corruption…more so because corruption is itself central to the spread of poverty…its corruption corrosive effect is all too visible in all aspects of our national life. This is a powerful lexical resource that appears to reflect a kind of commitment to fighting corruption. And the following two clauses aptly corroborate the determination. The bane of corruption shall be met by the overwhelming force of our collective determination, to rid our nation of this scourge.

Corruption is expressed by the process shall be met as animate. The above underlined expression is therefore a kind of reification. It is a nominalization which omits the actual participants in corruption as corruption cannot be perpetrated by itself. Both presidents delivered the speech in this context. This appears to be a persuasive rational discursive argument cognitively decipherable and acceptable to the people. Persuasion is a feature of argumentation where politicians try to convince their audience that certain course of action is right or certain point of view is true Fairclough and Fairclough, Our commitment to the entrenchment of transparency and accountability in the conduct of Government business remains unwavering……we have realized over N billion from unspent capital releases to Ministries, Departments, and agencies.

In trying to discursively buy into the MR, he employs nominalization with the mark of certainty in expressing the current government action regarding corruption and articulating the goals the government is set to achieve which comprise the other sides of corruption.

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The strengthening of the anti-corruption institutions and other law enforcement agencies is a direct consequence of our determination to institutionalize zero-tolerance for corruption. Jonathan starts with a kind of lamentation using a clause in a passivized form with obscured agent: Our people are divided in many ways — ethnically, religiously, politically, and materially. The absence of the agent may have been employed to shield responsibility for the division especially the leadership headed by the president himself.

We are waging a steady battle against poverty, unemployment, and corruption. Here, poverty, unemployment and corruption are reified. As we know, all these three elements are abstractions which are treated as physical entities e. Rather, such elements require well-formulated plans and policies to achieve. Jonathan also discursively positions himself outside the political circle and space. This is also a way of distancing himself and appealing to consciousness of the MR to apportion blames to other unnamed parties instead of the speaker Jonathan for the prevailing political actions in the country.

Our politics should be an art of patriotic labour and selfless service to the community … particularly by the political elite who are placed in positions of great trust and responsibility. This is no time for the harmful clutches of parochial sentiments and the politics of bitterness, impunity, arrogance and unhelpful indiscipline. Although the above clauses may be seen as a speech act performing the subtle function of advising or preaching, it may also be a subtle strategy of indicting the opposition who do not have equal power to control the discourse.

This misrepresentation appears to be deliberate in the sense that information regarding the deplorable and ludicrous state of affairs in Nigeria such as corruption, decaying infrastructure, poverty and crime is available in the public domain. The same interpretation could be said of the reference to election and choice. And ultimately, the ballot box gives us all the opportunity to instigate change. It is apparent the two presidents depend on the background knowledge and assumptions which may also be ideological in constructing themselves and the situation in Nigeria, albeit differently.

Positioning and commitment in relation to corruption in the speeches Fairclough , maintains that explanation stage in critical discourse analysis is a matter of seeing discourse as part of the social struggle within a matrix of relations of power.

Neoliberal newspeak

Here, I attempt to present a wider explanation, and contextualize the texts with greater focus on issues of ideology and power relations. I look at how the two presidents ideologically view corruption at the time of taking over power, and how the speeches show their commitment to either fight it or sustain the existing situation.

We are determined to intensify the war against corruption……more so because corruption is itself central to the spread of poverty. Its corrosive effect is all too visible in all aspects of our national life. Although the appeal to the cognitive resources of Nigerians here is meaningful as corruption is not only known to exist in the country but its effects are widely seen.

It has been variously argued that that corruption is evil and unacceptable; however, the ramification of the facets and issues around corruption appears to be wider and more dynamic that it is presented in the speech. Aregbeshola, He tries to remove all doubts about the war and also goes further to foreground by quickly telling Nigerians about its effects.

The ideology being foregrounded here is that the participants Nigerians should do away with corruption whether in the public or private sector. Corruption is positioned from the perspective of its effects; even the ramifications and the dynamics appear to be underplayed. What is said of the speaker has positive representation: I will set a worthy personal example as your President. He also gives an example of a long time corrupt act in government agencies in which he stopped: …we the government have realized over N billion from unspent capital releases to Ministries, Departments, and Agencies.

He used the instrument of language to position himself as a fighter of corruption. It is common knowledge that his nomination to the position of the president by his political party and his eventual winning the general election was riddles with electoral corruption. What about other political office holders?

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I promise this nation that once we have a response, those names in response will be made public and we will take action and direct that the names should be forwarded to the EFCC and those officials and former officials involved will be arrested and prosecuted see Oloja, However, the entire administration was reported to have been riddled with corrupt practices.

An example is: the bane of corruption shall be met by the overwhelming force of our collective determination, to rid our nation of this scourge. The following clause also presents corruption with a big brush lacking specificity and diligence it requires.

The fight against corruption is a war in which we must all enlist…so that the limited resources of this nation will be used for the growth of our common wealth. It all reduces to mere preaching against corruption; without specific pronouncement on how corruption should be fought!

This may not be an indication that corruption has reduced; but it may explain that the government is no longer seeing it as a real problem to be addressed. Other selected clauses are embedded with issues of misrepresentation. Rhetorical misrepresentation of issues or the garbing of falsehood in acceptable terms is embedded in the act of corruption itself. The whole speech is built on rhetoric and false representation of the realities on the ground.

In the following clause - Politics and politicians sometimes distract the people and create unnecessary tension- he fails to position himself as part and parcel of the politics and politicians that do the distraction. In the following sentence, our people are divided in many ways — ethnically, religiously, politically, and materially, the agents of the process doing the 'dividing' are not declared.

Jonathan, as a president, is expected to provide the leadership and enabling policies for the unity of the country. However, corruption in his administration has been described as massive e.